----- Experience in your own room the magical nature of stereo sound -----



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dipole speaker

Three-Box active
system (1978)



& Room




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What's new


LX - Store


with Fitz






   What's new? 


    2012 to 2007


  • December 2012
    Links - How sound waves become a listening experience

  • 30 November 2012
    LX521 monitor - Frequently Asked Questions - FAQ

  • 19 November 2012
    LX521 monitor - 'From F3 to LX521'
     with more detail added

  • 11 November 2012
    Burning Amp Fest - Jason Victor Serinus reports about the event on the Stereophile website

  • 10 November 2012
    Stereo Recording and Rendering - JJ's seminar slides about Acoustics vs. Human Hearing

  • 10 November 2012
    Links - The Science and Art of Listening

  • 5 November 2012
    Links - First paper about swissaudec's coding technology for spatial audio at the upcoming Tonmeistertagung 2012

  • 1 November 2012
    The Burning Amp Festival - an Audio Happening


  • 25 October 2012
    LX521 monitor - A new loudspeaker for work and play at the highest level of sound reproduction

  • 25 October 2012
    Home page - A new layout and updates

  • 25 October 2012
    My current setup - The LX521 in place of ORION-3.3

  • 25 October 2012
    Site map - Updated

  • 25 October 2012
    AES Convention in San Francisco - On Friday, October 26th, at 2:30 pm in Session P6, I will give a paper "A Model for Rendering Stereo Signals in the ITD-Range of Hearing".   Presentation slides

  • 25 October 2012
    Burning Amp Festival 2012 - Sunday, October 28th. I will bring the new LX521 monitor. Directions to 2nd floor of Building C.
    DIYaudio Clubs & Events.

  • 14 September 2012
    ORION Reviews - Dutch articles about ORION construction, its performance and an interview with SL.

  • 3 September 2012
    Recording & Rendering - Making a SACD with the Budapest Festival Orchestra

  • 28 August 2012
    Recording & Rendering - 101 - Can be downloaded as a PDF file

  • 21 August 2012
    Recording & Rendering - 101 - A comprehensive presentation of the issues and problems involved with recording an acoustic event and creating an aural scene on reproduction over two loudspeakers in a reverberant environment.

  • 19 August 2012
    PLUTO Supplies - Assembled and tested electronic modules can now be ordered again

  • 8 August 2012 
    Issues in speaker design - Phase shift due to dipole D and its effect upon crossovers (Corrected)

  • 4 August 2012
    ORION & PLUTO by Wood Artistry - Explore the new website

  • 2 August 2012
    Publications - Watch the recently posted YouTube video of my 2010 Burning Amp Festival presentation: "What Are the On-axis and Off-axis Frequency Response Requirements for Stereo Loudspeakers?" recorded by Linear Systems.
    A broadband, constant directivity requirement is no longer a question in my mind.

  • 16 July 2012
    Links - Auro 3D - Principles in Surround Recordings with Height

  • 17 May 2012
    ORION - What is involved in building the ORION?

  • 16 May 2012
    Publications - A Model for Rendering Stereo Signals in the ITD-Range of Hearing

  • 6 May 2012
    Links - DAC noise shaping, jitter and digital volume control

  • 24 April 2012
    ORION-4 - An update about building the speakers yourself from a kit

  • 14 March 2012
    WATSON-SEL - The important direct-to-reverberant sound ratio

  • 2 March 2012
    AXPONA in Jacksonville, FL, - March 9-12 - ORION-4 by Wood Artistry will be demonstrated in Room 403

  • 26 February 2012
    WATSON-SEL - An update of its design and operation

  • 9 February 2012
    Links - Subjective assessment of audio quality - The means and methods within the EBU

  • 6 February 2012
    WATSON SEL - Stereo Enhancement Loudspeaker

  • 16 January 2012
    Links - Less and More - The Design Ethos of Dieter Rams

  • 13 January 2012
    Experimenter's Corner - Stereo in 2-D

  • 4 December 2011
    ORION-4 - Video interview from AXPONA-Atlanta, 2011

  • 20 November 2011
    Reference earphones - An update

  • 8 November 2011
    PLUTO supplies - A new printed circuit board with hole spacing for readily available components

  • 4 November 2011
    Links - Testing One, Two, Three

  • 2 November 2011
    DIY and the Cost of Doing Business

  • 20 October 2011
    ORION-3 - Version 3.5 of the ORION, which uses new SEAS woofers in a W-frame configuration, has been designed and documented. It can be a skilled DIY retrofit to the ORION-3.3.

  • 17 October 2011
    Terms & Conditions - How can you pass on what I sell? 

  • 3 October 2011
    ORION-3 - Version 3.4 of the ORION, which uses new SEAS woofers has been designed and documented. The woofers fit  into the ORION-3.3 woofer H-frame with a minor DIY change. 

  • 2 October 2011
    ORION-3.4 (= ORION-3.3 with new SEAS 10" woofer drivers) had its first showing at the 5th Burning Amp Festival in San Francisco. High Definition source material was played from a digital memory drive using the auraliti L1000 Music File Player. - - This was, as always, a fun event. 


       diyAudio > Clubs & Events

       ORION/PLUTO Users Group


  • 2 September 2011
    Wood Artistry/Linkwitz Lab will demo an ORION-4 at the Rocky Mountain Audio Fest, 14-16 October, 2011, in room 400.

  • 17 August 2011
    I have heard that access to www.linkwitzlab.com is blocked for some viewers in Italy, France, Netherlands and UK. My ISP cannot resolve the problem. If you are affected try one of the solutions listed here.

  • 10 August 2011
    ORION Support - New printed circuit boards are available for the ORION ASP

  • 7/30/11
    Links - Suppliers of high resolution music files

  • 7/28/11
    ORION-Reviews - The Audio Critic about ORION-3.3 and ORION-4

  • 7/5/11
    Toneburst CD - Download Track 1 for a boom and rattle test of your loudspeaker and room combination

  • 7/1/11
    About me - An interview in AudioXpress magazine, July 2011

  • 6/28/11
    My current setup - My current audio and video setup

  • 6/28/11
    ORION-Reviews -  AXPONA NYC report in Stereophile 

  • 6/28/11 
    Links - HDtracks.com - Downloads of high definition music files
    Links - Listen - A classical music magazine
    Links - Introduction to 3-D Audio

  • 6/19/11
    AXPONA - In a few days we will demo ORION-4 in NYC. 
    Come to the Wood Artistry & Linkwitz Lab room #725 to listen and talk to Don Naples and myself. 

  • 6/8/11
    Links - Listening in on the brain listening

  • 6/8/11
    Links - The Well-Tempered Computer

  • 5/23/11
    Links - Dipole Bass vs Monopole Bass

  • 4/26/11
    ORION challenge - ORION-3.3 DIY

  • 4/26/11
    ORION challenge - ORION-4 from Wood Artistry LLC

  • 4/25/11
    Music - Several recordings have been added to the list 

  • 4/22/11

    ORION-4 by Wood Artistry/Linkwitz Lab was shown at AXPONA Atlanta 2011.

    The price for the loudspeakers with standard woods and finishes and including the Analog Signal Processor (ASP) is $14,750 FOB Healdsburg, CA.
    The Introductory Price - valid through June 31, 2011 - is $13,750.
    First shipments are expected in July, 2011.

    Add-on options are offered for custom 8-conductor speaker cables with Speakon connectors and for sets of interconnect cables.

    Amplifier suggestions include Marantz MM8003, ATI AT1806, 
    and Bryston 9B SST (2x).

    A Marantz SA-7S1 SACD/CD player and Pass Laboratories XP-10 preamplifier with remote controls were used for the demonstrations. 

    See front and back sides of the handout page for product and stereo features and Stereophile's show report.

    ORION-4 will be shown at AXPONA New York City, June 24-25, 2011.

  • 4/10/11
    Links - Linear Audio - Volume 1.

  • 3/21/11
    AXPONA - Wood Artistry LLC will exhibit ORION-4.
    This variation of the ORION loudspeaker design employs 
    custom 10" woofers from Seas in a W-frame configuration 
    and a new cabinet for enhanced low frequency and 
    overall performance. 

    Left: ORION-4 Prototype 2 under test

    I will be in Atlanta to support Don Naples' push
    into the consumer market. 
    Wood Artistry will follow up with a DIY version of the cabinet.
    A retrofit of ORION-3.2.1 with the new 10" drivers in the
    existing H-frame is planned for later this year when I have 
    an ORION-4 in my living room for comparison tests.   


  • 2/23/11
    Issues in speaker design - Crossover topology issues (details added)

  • 1/21/11
    Links - The Inaudible Loudspeaker

  • 1/20/11
    Links - Orion Gateway

  • 1/17/11
    Links - Polar response calculations for Open Baffle Dipoles

  • 1/8/11
    Links - Mikrofonaufnahmetechnik und Tonstudiotechnik

  • 12/24/10
    Publications - and more than just Abstracts

  • 12/16/10
    ORION-Revision 3 - Don Barringer summarizes the revisions of the ORION loudspeaker since its inception in 2002

  • 12/11/10
    Reviews - Peter Aczel of The Audio Critic webzine reviews Version 3.2.1 of the ORION open-baffle loudspeaker

  • 12/11/10
    Publications - I gave a paper 'Hearing spatial detail in stereo recordings' in the session on 'Perception & Esthetics' of the 26th TONMEISTERTAGUNG in Leipzig, Germany. The talk was then followed by one and a half days of auditory illustrations of different recording styles using PLUTO-2.1 in a large office room, which caused astonishment and delight for many Tonmeister, Professors and Students.


    Joerg Wuttke, of Schoeps Microfone design fame, was instrumental in bringing my loudspeaker and room ideas to the attention of Guenther Theile from the Organizing Committee of TMT26 and for the opportunity to demonstrate what I would talk about. Marius ter Ellen brought his Pluto loudspeakers from the Netherlands to make this possible.
    Left photos: SL explains constant directivity and room response effects. 
    Center: Marius in the far back; Clemens Par who stunned everyone by his unique signal processing algorithm for turning mono into stereo with individual instrument placement; SL looking for a business card; Joerg Wuttke; Guenther Theile and Florian Camerer, who is responsible for the Vienna New Year's Concert ORF broadcast. 
    Right: Malgorzata Albinska-Frank; Joerg Wuttke. 
    My thanks to all who made this a successful presentation, especially to Guenther Theile and Peter Maier for last minute help in toning down a highly reverberant empty room. We carried in heavy felt curtains and foam bulk absorbers from a concept-A truck to create an acoustically dead end to the room.

  • 11/17/10
    New website for all things ORION and PLUTO

  • 10/31/10 
    The Burning Amp Festival - Wood Artistry will demo ORION-3.2 and I will give a talk: 
    "What Are the On-axis and Off-axis Frequency Response Requirements for Stereo Loudspeakers?" 
    Slide presentation and Talk with Q&A (1:29 hrs, 21 MB, mp3) - Afterthoughts

                I got promoted!
    Last demo
    of the day (Shostakovich, Symphony #15)

  • 10/12/10
    I have become inundated with emails. Paid order fulfillment is definitely my priority. Please read the updated Caution:

    CAUTION: The content of these pages may change without notice as I learn new things or find better descriptions. The designs presented here may change as I make new observations or gain more insight. I see myself as a seeker of truth, though I now know that every person is, and ultimately truth is a construct. There is only this. Maybe what has been done here points you to it. Audio has overwhelmingly been a hobby for me, for my own pleasure and love of music. I enjoy to share what I found and possibly to dispel a few misconceptions. My interest is not on the business side, though I like that my activities pay for my hobbies. You may not agree with some or all aspects of my designs, the approach that I take to them, or the theories. I have no problem with that. Just do not ask me "what would happen if ...". Changes that you make to the designs are for your own pleasure and at your own risk. But if you learn something worthwhile, then please let me know. I have received increasing amounts of email. I have responded to every legitimate letter that made its way through the Junk Mail, even when it meant repeating what has been published. My DIY projects are not for beginners and it may be necessary for you to buy subassemblies or a turnkey system from Wood Artistry. Please do not ask me for individual help with your DIY difficulties. All my designs have a Support Page. It is listed on the cover of your project documentation. There is an ORION/PLUTO Users Group with people who can help you. I respond to every email eventually, but you may not get the answer you want. I consider my writings in these web pages as brief and to the point. I labor over every sentence and word and provide little redundancy. Read thoroughly and maybe more than once. I do not write for the rank beginner, but for those who have been around the block. You may need to study up. The links in my text are for that. I have not been standing still since I started this web in 1999 and with the idea of a brain dump of my previous findings so they would not get lost to the audio community, and with the PHOENIX as an example, so you could test my findings for yourself. In 2006, I thought I would go into a support and maintenance mode. No new design. Stuff happened, more enjoyment to share. Just do not ask me about the timing or performance of future products or if there will be any. I feel free to change things, always keep the upgrade path in mind, but I am not bound by that should I find something significant. I could stop now and be content with what has been accomplished.  

  • 10/10/10
    2010 Rocky Mountain Audio Fest - One page Handout for ORION System in Room 414 at RMAF and a new Price list  

  • 9/26/10
    Three-box active system (1978) - Added SPL Nomographs and Mailbox letters from out-of-print Speaker Builder magazine

  • 8/31/10
    2010 Rocky Mountain Audio Fest - Linkwitz Lab, Wood Artistry and Seas will demo ORION-3.2 in room 414

  • 8/31/10 
    Links - Some factors in loudspeaker quality (1976, Harwood, BBC R&D)

  • 8/23/10
    ORION-3.2 - A new loudspeaker with a proud heritage

  • 8/11/10
    Linear Audio - A new semi-annual publication. I contributed a 22 page article with 22 illustrations to the first issue of the 'bookzine'.

  • 7/31/10
    Issues in speaker design - L-07 Dipole loudspeaker

  • 7/28/10
    Issues in speaker design - High -frequency down-shelving for ORION-3

  • 7/28/10
    Issues in speaker design - What is the optimum polar response for a loudspeaker?

  • 7/26/10
    ORION-3 - Revision 3 of the ORION loudspeakers

  • 6/25/10
    PLUTO+ subwoofer - New closed-box1.xls spreadsheet with driver data base

  • 6/20/10
    Links - Vector Waveform Format

  • 6/9/10
    Links - Acoustics Handbook

  • 6/9/10
    Other designs - Horbach-Keele linear-phase digital crossover filters (updated)

  • 6/3/10
    ORION Challenge - Words from a satisfied customer

  • 5/31/10
    Digital Photo Processes - A pocketable companion for my LX3

  • 5/24/10
    Links - Putting the Science back into Loudspeakers

  • 4/24/10
    Publications - STEREO - From live to recorded and reproduced - What does it take?

  • 4/21/10
    Links - Constant beamwidth transducer (CBT)

  • 4/21/10
    Other designs - Controlled directivity loudspeaker designs

  • 3/31/10
    Issues in speaker design - Accuracy, spatial distortion and plausibility of the auditory scene - Conclusions

  • 3/9/10
    Links - Microphones and acoustic measurements

  • 3/1/10
    Issues in speaker design - Triggered burst measurements of tweeters

  • 2/28/10
    PLUTO omni speaker - The assembled and tested electronics module is available again

  • 2/4/10
    Links - The physics and psychoacoustics of surround recording

  • 2/1/10
    Links - Multichannel natural music recording based on psychoacoustic principles

  • 1/28/10
    Links - Perceptual differences between wavefield synthesis and stereophony

  • 1/16/10 
    Links - A Case for Subjectivity

  • 1/13/10
    Links - The Seductive (Yet Destructive) Appeal of Loud Music

  • 1/13/10
    Issues in speaker design - Spatial distortion in audio

  • 12/29/09
    Accurate Stereo - Accurate performance of a stereo sound system

  • 12/16/09
    Active filters - Room EQ

  • 12/4/09
    Toneburst CD - Pink Noise Imaging Test 

  • 11/13/09
    Publications - Slides of two talks at the 7 Conferencia AES Chile, November 2009

  • 10/19/09
    Design of loudspeakers - Burning Amp Festival, October 2009

  • 10/16/09
    Sound reproduction - The best sound reproduction ...

  • 10/16/09
    Crossovers - The best crossovers ...

  • 10/16/09
    Loudspeakers - The best loudspeakers ...

  • 10/15/09
    Room acoustics - The best rooms ...

  • 10/14/09
    Publications - Slide presentation and soundtrack from "The challenge to find the optimum radiation pattern and placement of stereo loudspeakers in a room for the creation of phantom sources and simultaneous masking of real sources" - AES New York, October 2009

  • 10/14/09 
    Publications - Manuscripts from "Recording and reproduction over two loudspeakers as heard live" - AES Munich, May 2009

  • 8/16/09
    Publications - "Electrical, mechanical and acoustic filters in the design of a loudspeaker with dipole woofers"

  • 7/17/09
    Publications - "Investigation of sound quality differences between monopolar and dipolar woofers in small rooms", 1998

  • 7/17/09
    Publications - "Development of a compact dipole loudspeaker", 1992

  • 7/15/09
    Links - Audio Musings by Sean Olive

  • 7/15/09
    Links - Enjoy the Music - Review Magazine

  • 6/20/09
    Digital Photo Processes - LX3 in use

  • 6/12/09
    Issues in speaker design - Crossover topology mistakes

  • 5/27/09
    Links - A sensibly designed loudspeaker, the GRIMM AUDIO LS1

  • 5/21/09 
    Publications - Recording and reproduction over two loudspeakers as heard live - AES Munich, May 2009

  • 5/21/09
    Links - Review of the Audio Artistry VIVALDI open-baffle loudspeaker from 1996

  • 4/9/09
    PLUTO supplies - Assembled, tested, and ready to play PLUTO-2.1 Electronics Modules are available again.

  • 4/2/09
    Active Filters - Passive versions of filters 5, 6, and a fixed attenuator 10

  • 3/23/09
    ORION  FAQ - When do I need THOR subwoofers?

  • 1/15/09
    PLUTO-2.1 - The latest update of PLUTO

  • 12/6/08
    Links - The "Stereo Dipole"

  • 12/6/08
    Links - Monte Kay's Home Theater

  • 12/6/08
    Links - Horbach-Keele digital crossovers

  • 12/3/08
    Digital Photo Processes - Waiting is over! The compact LX3 camera

  • 11/12/08 
    Pluto-2 - A loudspeaker review by Peter Aczel of The Audio Critic

  • 10/30/08
    FAQ 20
    - What contributes to the polar response of ORION+?

  • 10/22/08
    Design of loudspeakers - AES Convention, RMAF, Burning Amp

  • 10/21/08
    Design of loudspeakers - First correspondence between SL and Laurie Fincham from KEF

  • 10/20/08
    Publications - "Phantom images in 2-channel audio playback versus natural hearing processes"

  • 8/22/08
    Pluto-2 owners check your Support Page for the latest update.

  • 8/16/08
    Rocky Mountain Audio Fest - First public demonstrations of the ORION+ and Pluto-2.

  • 8/16/08
    The Burning Amp Festival - I will give a talk about "The path to increased realism in 2-channel audio playback and recording"

  • 8/4/08
    Links - Floyd Toole: Sound Reproduction - Loudspeakers and Rooms

  • 7/20/08
    PLUTO-2 - Tweeter level adjustment

  • 6/18/08
    Recording for stereo - Stereo recording angles

  • 6/17/08
    Recording for stereo - Mapping from recording to playback

  • 5/30/08
    Pluto-3 - A 3-way speaker with external crossover/equalizer and power amplifiers for someone who likes to test their skills.

  • 5/30/08
    Pluto-2 - Construction details for conversion from PLUTO to Pluto-2 and to Pluto-2+

  • 5/23/08
    ORION++ - Rear tweeter level adjustment

  • 5/19/08
    Pluto-2 -  A number of revisions to the original PLUTO for an easier to build and extended bass output 2-way system.

  • 5/7/08
    Publication #24 - "Accurate sound reproduction from two loudspeakers in a living room"
    San Francisco AES Section Meeting. Presentation slides.

  • 5/4/08
    Added Reference [5] for further reading about Investigation of energy storage.

  • 4/26/08
    Added Tracks 19-28 to the Toneburst CD

  • 4/23/08
    Added web page about Recording for stereo practices

  • 4/16/08
    See the AES Convention paper which underlies the Room optimized stereophonic reproduction web page.

  • 4/4/08
    The first open baffle loudspeaker?

  • 4/3/08
    Audio CD with demonstrations of Auditory Scene Analysis

  • 4/3/08
    H-frame loudspeaker from before 1936

  • 3/30/08
    Review of the ORION++ by The Audio Critic

  • 3/28/08
    A student version of CircuitMaker circuit analysis software is still available for download.

  • 3/28/08
    Software signal generator for download.

  • 3/26/08
    PLUTO owners check their support site for the Seas L16RN-SL circuit changes.
  • 3/21/08
    Summarizing statement added to the Home page.

  • 3/12/08
    A little homage to special friends:  Russ Riley,   Lyman Miller,   Brian Elliott

  • 3/10/08
    Added an Analog to digital conversion page to Digital Photo Processes. 

  • 2/29/08
    Added a Sharpness page to my camera investigation.

  • 2/25/08
    Added photos from my Audio Artistry era to the Links page.

  • 2/22/08
    I added an addendum to Suggestions and hearing.

  • 2/20/08
    I am posting the Digital Photo Processes pages. This will highlight my limited bandwidth issues and probably force me into a more costly hosting plan. But then there is always the Website CD.

  • 2/15/08
    A 1999 paper by B. Moore that deals with "Controversies and mysteries in spatial hearing" came to my attention again. I had forgotten about it. It would have helped me to understand the reason for the surprising similarity between an omni and a dipole in a reverberant room right away.

  • 2/13/08
    It is likely that the website will be down on the 21st day of each month due to heavy traffic, but it will always resume on the 22nd when my 50 GB/mo bandwidth allowance period starts up again. 

  • 1/1/08
    I added the "cocktail party effect" to the paragraph about "Sound stream segregation" on the "Recording for stereo" page. Some readers were apparently confused about what Don is trying to accomplish.

  • 12/22/07
    In case you wondered why the website was shut down yesterday for several hours, I had reached my monthly bandwidth allowance of 50 Gigabyte. Today starts a new monthly pay period with my ISP. If you own the Website CD, then you have access to 99% of the information here at all times and you probably will not notice any future interruption. 

  • 12/20/07-3
    The UK Chapter of the Audio Engineering Society keeps a full record of monthly talks on its website. The great variety of audio related subjects is educational and interesting.

  • 12/20/07-2
    I receive about 300 email messages per day. 98% of that is junk and I just pull out those that have a relevant subject line. So be clear with the subject if you want to get through my Spam filter. Before writing please read my CAUTION.

  • 12/20/07-1
    The Orion User Group is a good place to ask questions, get help and make contact. It also applies to PLUTO. 

  • 12/19/07-2
    If you are thinking of designing a box loudspeaker, then read Loudspeaker System Design. It covers many fundamental issues.

  • 12/19/07-1
    A reminder to those who have bought documentation from LINKWITZ LAB. On the cover is the URL for a support page. Check it for the latest updates.

  • 12/18/07-2
    My recent talk in London gives a summary of what has been learned here about loudspeaker design for accurate sound reproduction in relatively small rooms. ORION+ and PLUTO+ embody the key features that a loudspeaker must have. I hope that these prototypes will stimulate eventually some new loudspeaker developments for the high-end audio market so that a wider audience can hear what a simple 2-channel sound system is capable of. I am not holding my breath, though. The industry, its marketers and commentators are firmly locked into vented boxes and no fresh air comes in. Besides, the profit in this business is in cables, spikes, room tuning, etc. and now compact speakers for the iPod generation, but their hearing might be already damaged.
  • 12/18/07-1
    The first and last links in the left hand column should let you find quickly what is new on the website by pointing to this page. This new page also gives me a convenient place to add timely comments.





What you hear is not the air pressure variation in itself 
but what has drawn your attention
in the streams of superimposed air pressure variations 
at your eardrums

An acoustic event has dimensions of Time, Tone, Loudness and Space
Have they been recorded and rendered sensibly?

Last revised: 06/17/2022   -  1999-2019 LINKWITZ LAB, All Rights Reserved